... Kontinent ist in aller Welt für seine zahlreichen und einzigartigen Sehenswürdigkeiten bekannt. [401] Patronage declined from 37 million passengers in 1945 to 11 million in 1963 but has recovered somewhat in recent years. [95][96][97], At Sydney's primary weather station at Observatory Hill, extreme temperatures have ranged from 45.8 °C (114.4 °F) on 18 January 2013 to 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) on 22 June 1932. [433] The Sydney Desalination Plant came into operation in 2010.[430]. [324], Filmmaking in Sydney was quite prolific until the 1920s when spoken films were introduced and American productions gained dominance in Australian cinema. Die zwölf Apostel. Metropolitan Perth has six broadcast television stations; Regional WA has a similar availability of stations, with the exception of West TV. [68] Construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge served to alleviate some of the effects of the economic downturn by employing 1,400 men between 1924 and 1932. Victoria is a state in Australia, in the south-east corner of the country. The first modern human inhabitants of Australia arrived from the north about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. [373] 14 of the 17 selective secondary schools in New South Wales are based in Sydney. [397] A light rail line serving Western Sydney has also been announced, due to open in 2023. [418][421] The City of Sydney introduced a Sustainable Sydney 2030 program, with various targets planned and a comprehensive guide on how to reduce energy in homes and offices within Sydney by 30%. To the south of The Domain is Hyde Park, the oldest public parkland in Australia which measures 16.2 hectares (0.1 square miles) in area. Sydney - Wikipedia . Aust. [64][65][66] Nevertheless, Sydney exceeded Melbourne's population in the early twentieth century and remains Australia's largest city. [86], Sydney is home to dozens of bird species,[87] which commonly include the Australian raven, Australian magpie, crested pigeon, noisy miner and the pied currawong, among others. The Museum of Contemporary Art was opened in 1991 and occupies an Art Deco building in Circular Quay. The name New Holland remained in popular and semi-official use until at least the mid-1850s; that is, it was in use for about 206 years in comparison to the name Australia which to date has been in use for about 192 years.[12]:11. In the 1850s and 1860s, the railway reached areas that are now outer suburbs of Sydney.[386]. Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging. [245], Sydney's nominal gross domestic product was AU$400.9 billion and AU$80,000 per capita[246] in 2015. The Cumberland Plain lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat. [127] In late autumn and winter, east coast lows may bring large amounts of rainfall, especially in the CBD. [345] Horse racing remains popular to this day and events such as the Golden Slipper Stakes attract widespread attention. These span up to about 11 km west of the CBD. (1990) Taken for Granted: the Bushland of Sydney and Its Suburbs, Sydney, William, E and Airey, DW. [142] Westfield Sydney, located beneath the Sydney Tower, is the largest shopping centre by area in Sydney. b In Australia, the body of water south of the continent is officially gazetted as the Southern Ocean, whereas the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) designates it as part of the Indian Ocean. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the western 32.9 percent of the land area of Australia excluding external territories. Sharples, J.J. Mills, G.A., McRae, R.H.D., Weber, R.O. [129] Depending on the wind direction, summer weather may be humid or dry, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher average humidity and dewpoints than late spring/early summer. [69][70][71][72] Major wine producing regions include: Margaret River, The Great Southern, Swan Valley as well as smaller districts including Blackwood Valley, Manjimup, Pemberton, Peel, Chittering Valley, Perth Hills, and Geographe. The Kimberley has an extremely hot monsoonal climate with average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 1,500 millimetres (20–60 in), but there is a very long almost rainless season from April to November. Für das Easy-to-wear Feeling an 365 Tagen – dafür steht die Marke Street One mit klaren, trendgenauen und ausgesuchten Lieblingsstücken. [114], The Bureau of Meteorology reported that 2002 to 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859. [387][388][389] The Light Horse Interchange in western Sydney is the largest in the southern hemisphere. [26] Sydney makes up half of Australia's finance sector and has been promoted by consecutive Commonwealth Governments as Asia Pacific's leading financial centre. [245] The economy was clearly capitalist in nature by the 1840s as the proportion of free settlers increased, the maritime and wool industries flourished, and the powers of the East India Company were curtailed. [41] The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal. An exception to this is the northern tropical regions. [214] The tallest structure is Sydney Tower, designed by Donald Crone and completed in 1981. [335] Its competitor is the News Corporation tabloid The Daily Telegraph which has been in print since 1879. [46][47], Other significant farm output includes wool, beef, lamb, barley, canola, lupins, oats and pulses. [376], Healthcare gained recognition as a citizen's right in the early 1900s and Sydney's public hospitals came under the oversight of the Government of New South Wales. [375], Governor Lachlan Macquarie arranged for the construction of Sydney Hospital and saw it completed in 1816. [111] Since Sydney borders the Great Dividing Range, it can occasionally experience dry, westerly Föhn-like winds usually between winter and spring, as it lies on the leeward side of the ranges, thereby elevating fire danger in the region. Many of the convicts that survived the trip from England continued to suffer from dysentery, smallpox, scurvy, and typhoid. [5][67] Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies agreed to form the Commonwealth of Australia. The southern parts of the city are drained by the Georges River and the Cooks River into Botany Bay. Australien is da gresste Stoot vom australischn Kontinent. [263] The primary cause for rising prices is the increasing cost of land and scarcity[264] which made up 32% of house prices in 1977 compared to 60% in 2002. [345] Rugby league separated from rugby union in 1908. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils. The city's two largest film festivals are Sydney Film Festival and Tropfest. The Legislative Council moved into its northern wing in 1829 and by 1852 had entirely supplanted the surgeons from their quarters. It is based in a terrace house in Darlington owned by the University of Sydney. Haberfield is known as "The Federation Suburb"[by whom?] Sydney is the host of several festivals throughout the year. In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source. Severin finns äntligen på facebook. [371] The University of New South Wales and the University of Sydney are ranked top 50 in the world, the University of Technology Sydney is ranked 133, while Macquarie University is ranked 237, and Western Sydney University is ranked 474. About five million people live in Sydney which makes it the biggest city in Oceania. The Sydney CBD is characterised by considerably narrow streets and thoroughfares, created in its convict beginnings in the 18th century. [345][346] Disputes about appropriate clothing for surf bathing surfaced from time to time and concerned men as well as women. [73] Sydney has maintained extensive political, economic and cultural influence over Australia as well as international renown in recent decades. The City2Surf is an annual 14-kilometre (8.7-mile) running race from the CBD to Bondi Beach and has been held since 1971. [11], Captain Phillip led the First Fleet of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of freshwater. The target will be the Swiss heritage sites, … The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate. It is estimated that half of the native people in Sydney died during the smallpox epidemic of 1789. Whaling was a key marine industry but ceased at Albany in 1978. The National Institute of Dramatic Art is based in Sydney and has several famous alumni such as Mel Gibson, Judy Davis, Baz Luhrmann, Cate Blanchett, Hugo Weaving and Jacqueline Mckenzie.[327]. The inner city measures 25 square kilometres (10 square miles), the Greater Sydney region covers 12,367 square kilometres (4,775 square miles), and the city's urban area is 1,687 square kilometres (651 square miles) in size.[74][75][76]. Over the course of the 19th-century Sydney established many of its major cultural institutions. [347], Sailing races have been held on Sydney Harbour since 1827. [331] Little Italy is located in Stanley Street. [254] Of the 15 categories only measured by UBS in 2012, workers receive the seventh highest wage levels of 77 cities in the world. By 1961 the industry accounted for 39% of all employment and by 1970 over 30% of all Australian manufacturing jobs were in Sydney. Western Australia's ecoregions include the sandstone gorges of The Kimberley on the northern coast, and below that the drier Victoria Plains tropical savanna inland, and the semi-desert Pilbara shrublands, Carnarvon xeric shrublands, and Western Australian mulga shrublands to the southwest. Met. Several of its suburbs also have "Hill" or "Hills" in their names, such as Baulkham Hills, Castle Hill, Seven Hills, Pendle Hill, Beaumont Hills, and Winston Hills, among others. The Government has announced plans to sell nearly 300 historic public housing properties in the harbourside neighbourhoods of Millers Point, Gloucester Street, and The Rocks. [304][305] Other rock art sites exist in the Sydney region, such as in Terrey Hills and Bondi, although the locations of most are not publicised to prevent damage by vandalism, and to retain their quality, as they are still regarded as sacred sites by Indigenous Australians. Successful films shot in Sydney since then include The Matrix, Lantana, Mission: Impossible 2, Moulin Rouge!, Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones, Australia, and The Great Gatsby. [103] The average annual temperature of the sea ranges from 18.5 °C (65.3 °F) in September to 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) in February. [200] The college became the Sydney Institute in 1992 and now operates alongside its sister TAFE facilities across the Sydney metropolitan area, namely the Northern Sydney Institute, the Western Sydney Institute, and the South Western Sydney Institute. [182], The earliest structures in the colony were built to the bare minimum of standards. Australia is the sixth biggest country in the world by land area, and is part of the Oceanic and Australasian regions. Its tracks form part of the New South Wales railway network. Sydney is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby League competition: Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters, and Wests Tigers. Nine's offices and news studios are based in Willoughby,[338] Ten and Seven are based in Pyrmont, Seven has a news studio in the Sydney CBD in Martin Place[338][339] the Australian Broadcasting Corporation is located in Ultimo,[340] and the Special Broadcasting Service is based in Artarmon. Southern Sydney includes the suburbs in the local government areas of former Rockdale, Georges River Council (collectively known as the St George area), and broadly it also includes the suburbs in the local government area of Sutherland, south of the Georges River (colloquially known as 'The Shire'). The region now mainly features medium- and high-density housing. The New South Wales Blues compete in the Sheffield Shield league and the Sydney Sixers and Sydney Thunder contest the national Big Bash Twenty20 competition. The food situation reached crisis point in 1790. Its nickname is "The Wildflower State".[9]. As a result, the city has become a cosmopolitan melting pot. Some metropolitan suburbs are serviced by Pay TV via cable; however, most of the metropolitan and rural areas can only access Pay TV via satellite. MacDonnell, Freda. [73], Western Australia has four sister states:[74], In 1981, a sister state agreement was drawn up between Western Australia and Hyōgo Prefecture in Japan that was aimed at improving cultural ties between the two states. Essential public emergency services are provided and managed by the State Government. As a consequence: In 2019 Western Australia's overseas exports accounted for 46% of the nation's total. Sydney is also home to Event Cinemas' first theatre, which opened on George St in 1913, under its former Greater Union brand; the theatre currently operates, and is regarded as one of Australia's busiest cinema locations. The first Europeans to visit Western Australia belonged to the Dutch Dirk Hartog expedition, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616. Randwick's 'Collaboration Area' has a baseline estimate of 32,000 jobs by 2036, according to the Greater Sydney Commission.[159]. Sydney Football Stadium was completed in 1988 and is used for rugby and soccer matches. Snow outside these areas is a major event; it usually occurs in hilly areas of southwestern Australia. [169] Auburn Botanic Gardens, a botanical garden situated in Auburn, attracts thousands of visitors each year, including a significant number from outside Australia. [50] The region's indigenous population was also suffering. The Inner West generally includes the Inner West Council, Municipality of Burwood, Municipality of Strathfield, and City of Canada Bay. [63], Education in Western Australia consists of one year of pre-school at age 4 or 5, followed by six years of primary education for all students as of 2015. State Transit alone operated a fleet of 2,169 buses and serviced over 160 million passengers during 2014. Others have visited the city and commented on it. The city was the headquarters for Australia's first published newspaper, the Sydney Gazette. Sydney spans two geographic regions. Uluru und Kata Tjuṯa liegen am südlichen Rand des Amadeus-Beckens.Das heutige Amadeus-Becken mit dem Lake Amadeus, das sich über eine Fläche von 170.000 km² erstreckt, ist das strukturelle Relikt eines fossilen, mehrfach gefalteten Sedimentbeckens. [N 5][294][295], 38.2% of people in Sydney speak a language other than English at home with Mandarin (4.7%), Arabic (4.0%), Cantonese (2.9%), Vietnamese (2.1%) and Greek (1.6%) the most widely spoken.[298]. The North Shore, an informal geographic term referring to the northern metropolitan area of Sydney, consists of Artarmon, Chatswood, Roseville, Lindfield, Killara, Gordon, Pymble, Hornsby and many others. The settlement was formally annexed on 21 January 1827 by Lockyer when he commanded the Union Jack be raised and a feu de joie fired by the troops. [244][283] International education contributes $1.6 billion to the local economy and creates demand for 4,000 local jobs each year. Western Australia produces less than 5% of the country's wine output, but in quality terms is considered to be very much near the top. [360] The Cabinet of Australia also meets in Sydney when needed. Sydney is a city on the east coast of Australia which is the capital city of New South Wales. The interstate broadsheet publication The Australian is also available, although with sales per capita lagging far behind those in other states. The percentage of trips taken by car has increased from 13% in 1947 to 50% in 1960 and to 70% in 1971. Sydney Theatre Company maintains a roster of local, classical, and international plays. [143], There is a long trend of gentrification amongst Sydney's inner suburbs. [54], Between 1790 and 1816, Sydney became one of the many sites of the Australian Frontier Wars, a series of conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the resisting Indigenous clans. Over thousands of years they eventually spread across the whole landmass. [371] There are 935 public preschool, primary, and secondary schools in Sydney that are administered by the New South Wales Department of Education. [161] The project aims to provide reliable and high-capacity tram services to residents in the City and South-East. Despite its high ranking for an Australian city, Sydney has a low level of mass-transit services, with a historically low-density layout and significant urban sprawl, thus increasing the likelihood of car dependency. De … [308] Other museums based in Sydney include the Powerhouse Museum and the Australian National Maritime Museum. Governor Phillip departed the colony for England on 11 December 1792, with the new settlement having survived near starvation and immense isolation for four years. 1998. It offered courses in areas such as mechanical drawing, applied mathematics, steam engines, simple surgery, and English grammar. The city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world,[30] with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. The only significant economic activity is mining. Macquarie served as the last autocratic Governor of New South Wales, from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social and economic development of Sydney which saw it transition from a penal colony to a budding free society. First played in Sydney in 1865, rugby grew to be the city's most popular football code by the 1880s. [31] The countries of origin in descending order were China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Germany, Hong Kong, and India. [415] Electric cars do not produce carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide, gases which contribute to climate change. At the end of 2015 Victoria's population was an estimated 5,996,400. [434][435] Their combined networks include over 815,000 power poles and 83,000 kilometres (52,000 miles) of electricity cables. The Swifts are competitors in the national women's netball league. Only 33.1% of the population had both parents born in Australia. [33] Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are also well known to international visitors. [89][90] Sydney has a few mammal and spider species, such as the grey-headed flying fox and the Sydney funnel-web, respectively,[91][92] and has a huge diversity of marine species inhabiting its harbour and many beaches. Terrace houses are found in the inner suburbs such as Paddington, The Rocks, Potts Point and Balmain–many of which have been the subject of gentrification. [88] Reptile species are also numerous and predominantly include skinks. The best areas for birds are the southwestern corner of the state and the area around Broome and the Kimberley. [3] It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, and the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, and South Australia to the south-east. [42] [34] As the busiest airport in Australia it handled 37.9 million passengers in 2013 and 530,000 tonnes of freight in 2011. The origins of the present state began with the establishment by Lockyer[5] of a convict-supported settlement from New South Wales at King George III Sound. [260], Home ownership in Sydney was less common than renting prior to the Second World War but this trend has since reversed. Thomas Nelson (Australia) Limited, 1967. Jones, I., and Verdel, C. (2015). In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. [76][78], Following the Great Hanshin earthquake that devastated southern Hyōgo in January 1995, Western Australian groups and businesses raised funds and provided materials, whilst individuals travelled to Hyōgo to help with emergency relief and the subsequent reconstruction process. [121][122], The rainfall has a moderate to low variability and it is spread through the months, though it has been erratic in recent times. [41][51] Enlightened for his age, Phillip's personal intent was to establish harmonious relations with local Aboriginal people and try to reform as well as discipline the convicts of the colony. La Perouse, a historic suburb named after the French navigator Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse (1741–88), is notable for its old military outpost at Bare Island and the Botany Bay National Park. In recent years, tourism has grown in importance, with significant numbers of visitors to the state coming from the UK and Ireland (28%), other European countries (14%) Singapore (16%), Japan (10%) and Malaysia (8%). The Lower North Shore usually refers to the suburbs adjacent to the harbour such as Neutral Bay, Waverton, Mosman, Cremorne, Cremorne Point, Lavender Bay, Milsons Point, Cammeray, Northbridge, and North Sydney. [35], The first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians who had migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Green, D., 1973. [47], The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity. [2][221] However, according to the 2016 census, 1,082,448 (25%) residents of Sydney's Urban Centre describe themselves as Catholic, while another 1,053,500 (24.4%) people consider themselves non-religious. The sandstone has shale lenses and fossil riverbeds. Sydney Airport, officially "Sydney Kingsford-Smith Airport", is located in the inner southern suburb of Mascot with two of the runways going into Botany Bay. The colonial settlements elsewhere on the continent eventually seceded from New South Wales and formed their own governments. To relieve congestion on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel opened in August 1992. [309][310], In 1866 then Queen Victoria gave her assent to the formation of the Royal Society of New South Wales. Modern manufacturing industry relies heavily upon compressed air for many important applications, and therefore efficient compressors can lead to a significant reduction in energy costs. [386] The most important roads in Sydney were the nine Metroads, including the 110-kilometre (68-mile) Sydney Orbital Network. He established public works, a bank, churches, and charitable institutions and sought good relations with the Aborigines. [35][36], At the 2016 census, 55.5% of respondents identified as Christian and 32.5% as having no religion. [46] There is a high level of overseas demand for live animals from WA, driven mainly by southeast Asia's feedlots and Middle Eastern countries, where Islamic dietary laws and a lack of storage and refrigeration facilities favour live animals over imports of processed meat. [345] Cricket is a favoured sport in summer and big matches have been held at the Sydney Cricket Ground since 1878. From being illegal at the beginning of the century, sea bathing gained immense popularity during the early 1900s and the first surf lifesaving club was established at Bondi Beach. Other significant population centres include Bunbury (73,989),[34] Geraldton (37,961),[34] Kalgoorlie-Boulder (30,420),[34] Albany (33,998),[34] Karratha (16,446),[34] Broome (14,501)[34] and Port Hedland (14,285). It links the Inner West and Darling Harbour with Central station and facilitated 9.1 million journeys in the 2016–17 financial year. Sydney co-hosted the FIBA Oceania Championship in 1979, 1985, 1989, 1995, 2007, 2009 and 2011. 5.2% of residents of Sydney are attending a university. [131] The city is rarely affected by cyclones, although remnants of ex-cyclones do affect the city. In 1831 Scottish botanist Robert Brown produced a scientific paper, General view of the botany of the vicinity of Swan River. The state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Perth has many radio stations on both AM and FM frequencies. [416][417] Cycling trips have increased by 113% across Sydney's inner-city since March 2010, with about 2,000 bikes passing through top peak-hour intersections on an average weekday. The first cricket club was formed in 1826 and matches were played within Hyde Park throughout the 1830s and 1840s. A historical annual temperature dataset for Australia. Both directly and indirectly, the industry makes up 3.2% of the state's economy whilst comparatively, WA's largest revenue source, the mining sector, brings in 31%. [326] Fox Studios Australia commenced production in Sydney in 1998. As a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots". It has staged over 100,000 performances and received 100 million visitors since opening in 1973. Westralia House in Perth and Westralia Airports Corporation, which operates Perth Airport, as well as in the names of several ships. Barton, ACT: Australian Geomechanics Society, 1999: 641-647. There were 1.76 million dwellings in Sydney in 2016 including 925,000 (57%) detached houses, 227,000 (14%) semi-detached terrace houses and 456,000 (28%) units and apartments. It also includes the high capacity Stadium Australia used for rugby, soccer, and Australian rules football. The Northern Beaches area extends south to the entrance of Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), west to Middle Harbour and north to the entrance of Broken Bay. Bankstown is also the fourth busiest airport in Australia by the number of aircraft movements. The North Shore includes the commercial centres of North Sydney and Chatswood. [2], Macquarie gave a charter in 1817 to form the first bank in Australia, the Bank of New South Wales. [425] Sydney has also become a leader in the development of green office buildings and enforcing the requirement of all building proposals to be energy-efficient. [7] Western Australia is the largest iron ore producer in the world. The first indications of a proper legal system emerged with the passing of a Charter of Justice in 1814. [320] Contemporary writers, such as Elizabeth Harrower, were born in the city and thus set most of the work there–Harrower's debut novel Down in the City (1957) was mostly set in a King's Cross apartment. The development led to the release of the Metropolitan Air Quality Scheme (MAQS), which led to a broader understanding of the causation of pollution in Sydney, allowing the government to form appropriate responses to the pollution. Wer nach Australien reist und sich der an Sehenswürdigkeiten reichen Millionenstadt Sydney von der Seeseite her nähert, dessen Blick gleitet unwillkürlich zu einer direkt am Meer gelegenen, merkwürdig übereinander geschichteten, monumentalen Halbmuschelformation: Niemand kann sich der Faszination entziehen, die der Anblick der Sydney Opera auslöst.. Sydney's first commercial theatre opened in 1832 and nine more had commenced performances by the late 1920s. [378] St Vincent's Hospital was founded in 1857,[147] followed by Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children in 1880,[379] the Prince Henry Hospital in 1881,[380] the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in 1882,[381] the Royal North Shore Hospital in 1885,[382] the St George Hospital in 1894,[383] and the Nepean Hospital in 1895. [358] The Parliament of New South Wales sits in Parliament House on Macquarie Street. Opened on 1 April 1892, its shop fronts are an exact replica of the original internal shopping facades. The area is serviced by the T1, T2, and T3 railway lines, including the Main Suburban Line; which is the first to be constructed in New South Wales. The lowest minimum temperature recorded was −7.2 °C (19.0 °F) at Eyre Bird Observatory on 17 August 2008.[28]. [266] The Australian Securities Exchange began operating in 1987 and with a market capitalisation of $1.6 trillion is now one of the ten largest exchanges in the world. Although tending to be highly seasonal, in the period 2010–2019 wheat production in WA has averaged nearly 10 million tonnes ($2.816 billion in 2019), accounting for half the nation's total and providing $2–3 billion in export income. [284], The population of Sydney in 1788 was less than 1,000. [221][256] The largest reported occupations are professionals, clerical and administrative workers, managers, technicians and trades workers, and community and personal service workers. [221] Whilst terrace houses are common in the inner city areas, it is detached houses that dominate the landscape in the outer suburbs. North Sydney is dominated by advertising, marketing businesses and associated trades, with many large corporations holding office in the region. [307] It remains Australia's oldest natural history museum. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years earlier. The Sydney Uni Flames play in the Women's National Basketball League. [87][88], Location of Western Australia in Australia. Sydney has public, denominational, and independent schools. [b][18][19], The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km (1,157 mi). [167] Toongabbie is noted for being the third mainland settlement (after Sydney and Parramatta) set up after the British colonisation of Australia began in 1788, although the site of the settlement is actually in the separate suburb of Old Toongabbie. [79][80][81] The two governments signed a memorandum of understanding on the 20th anniversary in 2001 that aimed to improve the economic relationship between the two states. Most of these suburbs measure less than 1 square kilometre (0.4 square miles) in area. Cruise ship terminals are located at Sydney Cove and White Bay. It was extended to Lilyfield in 2000 and then Dulwich Hill in 2014. [180] The southwest also features Bankstown Reservoir, the oldest elevated reservoir constructed in reinforced concrete that is still in use and is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register.