Das Album kam am 26. Hump Air Transport; See "Mao BangChu", Plating, 2011, p. 38. Base of the 6th Ferrying Squadron until the end of the dry monsoon. The age profile mainly changed across cohorts rather than over time, with the performance increasing faster at younger ages. It was eventually traced to Natal, Brazil, where it have been unloaded and then forgotten. These groups carried more than 20,000 tons in July and 11,000 tons in August. A: In using the word “hump,” I’m equating chronological toddlerhood — roughly, 18 to 36 months of age — with the idea that there is a point at which one surmounts the most difficult or stressful point of a challenge. Lack of suitable navigational equipment, radio beacons, and inadequate numbers of trained personnel (there were never enough navigators for all the groups) continually affected airlift operations. It had originally sailed for the Philippines before 7 Dec 41 but had been recalled, reassigned, diverted and delayed since the start of the war. The C-54, which could at ten tons carry five times the cargo load of the C-47 and twice that of the C-46, replaced both twin-engined transports as the primary lifter of the operation. Like Haynes, Alexander, and Tunner, Cannon had been a pioneer in the Air Transport Command, where as a protege of Tunner's he was base commander of Long Beach Army Air Field, where Tunner made his headquarters as commander of ATC's Ferry Division, and commanding officer of the 6th Ferrying Group. But don't look yourself blind on the cheap dorm beds -- at the Hump nothing comes for free. [45] The dismal results of the India-China Ferry to this point led to a proposal in Washington to turn over control of the operation entirely to CNAC, which would place U.S. military personnel in a combat area under foreign civilian control. [83], 20 Japanese bombers escorted by 25 fighters bombed the Assam airfields on 13 December 1943 after several days of probing the early warning system without making an attack. Bernie was very good at getting uphill. Dinjan was within range of Japanese fighters now based at Myitkyina, forcing all-night maintenance operations and pre-dawn takeoffs of the defenseless supply planes. Tunner immediately reinstituted military standards of dress, decorum (including inspections and parades), and behavior that had become slack in the previous year, for which he earned the nickname "Willie the Whip". The flying units were commonly denoted as lettered squadrons, i.e. See more ideas about over the hump, happy wednesday quotes, wednesday quotes. Maintaining optimal N-O levels is especially important as you age because it affects how every cell in your body communicates with each other. Ten former Pan American World Airways DC-3s and flight crews were sent from the trans-Africa ferry route to outfit the new operation. I also hump my couch, the corner of my kitchen table, pillows, teddy bears, or just about anything I can. Neben Straßenkonzerten gaben sie vermehrt Hallenkonzerte, darunter vier ausverkaufte Konzerte in der Alsterdorfer Sporthalle in Hamburg sowie im Mai 1994 ein Konzert in der Westfalenhalle in Dortmund. [168] While piloting a C-46 on one such mission, Lt. Wally A. Gayda returned fire in desperation against a fighter by pushing a Browning automatic rifle out the cockpit window and firing a full magazine, killing the Japanese pilot. [38][k] In July, CNAC quadrupled its tonnage to 221 tons, but 10AF C-47s brought only 85 net tons[l] of materiel and personnel into China. [2] Not until 1944, when the ATC recruited high hour civilian flight instructors released by the AAF in pilot training program cutbacks, and the 3rd OTU at Reno AAF (Nevada) turned out a growing number of C-46 crews, were highly qualified replacements more readily available for the airlift. Arthur Norden. [34] For the remainder of 1942, the 62 C-47s[i] of the 1st Ferrying Group were the backbone of the airlift, flying both branches of the operation from Karachi until August, when it began a three months' relocation to Assam. [140] The Japanese offensive continued inexorably all summer and into the fall, threatening the efficacy if not the very existence of 14AF. Gen. On 18 February 1942, to protect the route from the Vichy French, the Air Corps Ferry Command militarized Pan Am's operations in Africa. 2nd MATS did have a C-46 go missing on a regular India-China mission on 16 December. Over the Hump: the Coming of Age of 2Lt. A crash landing of a loaded C-109 inevitably resulted in an explosion and crew fatalities, earning it the nickname "C-One-Oh-Boom". [2], Protection of the aerial supply line became the primary mission of the Tenth Air Force. The next day Sookerating was strafed by 30 fighters, again without warning, but damage was confined to a single storage building containing food and medical supplies. Never in the history of transportation had any community been supplied such a large proportion of its needs by air, even in the heart of civilization over friendly terrain...After the Hump, those of us who had developed an expertise in air transportation knew that we could fly anything anywhere anytime. [17][f] The collapse of Allied resistance in northern Burma in May 1942 meant further diversion of the already minuscule air effort. As many as ten airfields near Kunming and Chengdu served as China terminals when the B-29 XX Bomber Command was in operation. Living for years with osteoporosis left her bones thin, weak, and fragile. However one accident did occur when a C-46 made a wheels-up landing. The study was conducted for the AAF Inspector General "in the field" by Frank D. Sinclair, Aviation Technical Adviser of China Defense Supplies, Inc. A tactical airlift historian makes the claim that the transfer of the airlift to ATC was "actually a violation of the orders under which the USAAF had been formed," reasoning that as a "USAAF organization" ATC usurped "a responsibility of air forces under theater command." Performance increased for more recent cohorts and over time. The primary cause of ATC's failure was the complete inadequacy of its airfield facilities, but other major factors were unsatisfactory performance by overwhelmed aircraft maintenance personnel that grounded a hundred ATC aircraft per day, a predominance of inexperienced pilots (particularly compared to those of CNAC), and a dearth of radio and navigation aids in ATC transports. It is really easy to find the hostel. [103] Each base was assigned both daily and monthly tonnage quotas to move over the Hump based on the type of aircraft it operated and its distance from the "Chinaside" airfields, as the crews referred to their destinations. These early camels were nearly twice the size they are now – over 3m tall – and evolved their fat-filled hump to help them survive the cold. With a fleet of 410 C-46s augmenting the ICD, the tonnage lift capability over the Hump was predicted to become more than 86,000 tons per month. The C-47s were those internally based in China. Tunner wrote that ICD flew 1,118 round-trip sorties, averaging two per aircraft, and one C-54 logged three round trips in 22¼ hours of operations. The Age introduced Dr Goeman, 25, in January, during week one of her internship. But my last post, The Great Wait, took a lot more time and energy to write than any others, and I had to take an additional day to finish it.Oh well… Gen. William H. Tunner, Col. Andrew B. Cannon was assigned to command the Assam Wing when it was activated the next month. 2. intoxicated on a drug (s). [2], The task was initially given to the AAF's Tenth Air Force, and then to its Air Transport Command (ATC). Because C-47s and C-46s which landed in China were temporarily beyond ATC control, they were constantly being diverted for local emergencies by Chennault's and China Theater commander Lt. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer's forces, disrupting the flight crew rest and aircraft maintenance schedules necessary to maintain tonnage. The fearful losses suffered by the ICW in the first seven weeks of 1944 prompted Arnold to send C. R. Smith on an emergency inspection trip to India, where Smith met with Hoag. [137][138], XX BC had the unfortunate coincidence of arriving in the theater just as the Japanese started a major offensive in East China to open a corridor for lines of communication to its forces in Indochina, seize the airfields of Chennault's Fourteenth Air Force situated in that corridor, and possibly knock China out of the war. ICD was in charge of 60 AAF base units at some point between December 1943 and December 1945. The transfer was not entirely routine. Tunner called for their replacement entirely by C-54s and plans were drawn up to increase the Skymaster force to 272 by October 1945 and 540 by April 1946. Based at Sookerating; 99th, 100th, 301st Transport Squadrons. Its high-altitude capability enabled it to surmount the lower mountains (15,000–16000 feet MSL) without resorting to the passes, but the type had a high accident rate and was unsuited to the airfields then in use. Construction of four new bases was begun in 1942, and by 1944 the operation flew from six all-weather airfields in Assam. The humpback has a distinctive body shape, with long pectoral fins and a knobbly head. John was Peggy’s dad, my father-in-law. In addition, flying in the region was made more difficult by a lack of reliable charts, an absence of radio navigation aids, and a dearth of weather data. [91] To illustrate the various organizational changes affecting the India-China airlift, the unit at Chabua under 10AF deployed overseas as the 1st Ferrying Group. It varies from game to game exactly when. Just like with FTL, and just like with PlanetSide 2, I have gotten over the WoW "dissatisfaction hump" to emerge on the other side. It was redesignated the 1st Transport Group on 1 December 1942 to denote that it was an ATC unit. Finally over the hump, just in time for my birthday. The modified plan was approved in April 1945 and Morrison Field, Florida, was chosen for the maintenance but it proved an impediment to success when C-54s sent there remained at the field for periods five times the seven days originally estimated for turnaround. Base of the 13th Ferrying Squadron until the end of the dry monsoon. [58][t] Living conditions for both airlift flight crews and support personnel, particularly at Dinjan, were described as "by far the worst in the entire theater,[59] with primitive quarters, poor sanitation, bad food and mess facilities, pervasive disease, and lack of recreation. He considered ICD's safety record to be his greatest achievement. See more ideas about over the hump, happy wednesday quotes, wednesday quotes. Over the Hump is the eighth regular studio album by European-American pop group The Kelly Family. [50][s] The India Air Task Force, the western combat force of the Tenth Air Force, was activated 3 October with nine squadrons, none of which was fully operational. Showing unusual flexibility in planning, the 1348th Base Unit quartered incoming troops near airfields, supplied them, monitored the availability of aircraft and crews, divided the troops into planeloads, and kept Chinese units and their materiel intact. The C-46s moved the 14th Division from five airfields in Burma, including a field at Nansin whose construction was completed December 4. [2], In 1942 Chiang Kai-shek insisted that at least 7,500 tons per month were needed to keep his field divisions in operation, but this figure proved unattainable for the first fifteen months of the India-China airlift. [15] The original scheme envisioned the Allies holding northern Burma and using Myitkyina as an offloading terminal to send supplies by barge downriver to Bhamo and transfer to the Burma Road. Understand the causes and treatment for this common spinal condition. [75] Similarly, Eddie Rickenbacker flew the Hump in a C-87 to reach China during his fact-finding mission to the Far East and the Soviet Union,[76] and both he and Stratemeyer found ICW's performance seriously deficient. The group was activated in India in March without personnel or equipment and was assigned to the operational control of the Tenth Air Force over the objections of the commander of ATC, who feared that its planes and crews would be steered into combat units, which did in fact occur at times. [23] By June, however, the ABC Ferry Command had begun a greatly expanded wartime restructuring and would become the Air Transport Command on 1 July. Mechanics serviced planes in the open, using tarpaulins to cover the engines during the frequent downpours, and suffered burns to exposed flesh from sun-heated bare metal. Rickenbacker and Tenth Air Force commanding general Clayton L. Bissell recommended return of the operation to theater command, but Stratemeyer disagreed, as did Maj. Gen. Howard C. Davidson, who was about to replace Bissell in command of 10AF and had made an inspection tour of his own in June. Stratemeyer had been selected to go to the CBI more or less as an, Taylor writes that the British originally wanted 63 C-47s. What does over the hump expression mean? Flying over the Himalayas was extremely dangerous and made more difficult by a lack of reliable charts, an absence of radio navigation aids, and a dearth of information about the weather. Alexander later commanded both the Caribbean and Southwest Pacific Wings of ATC. [135] During the last three months of bombing operations from China, XX BC quickly phased out use of its B-29s to haul cargo,[136] and ICD supplied all of XX Bomber Command's materiel except bombs, which B-29s toted over the mountains in "reverse Hump" missions. Thunderstorms built suddenly...[into]...a whirling opaque world that not only meant no visibility but also frequently meant icing. There are about 123,000 people over the age of 65 on Delaware’s wait list for seniors to get the vaccine. The unit moved to Chabua on 25 October and was given official status and allotted two C-47s and several L-5 Sentinel liaison planes for rescue pickups. As the Ice Age came, the camels moved south. As an Army Air Corps pilot, Constein flew 96 missions at the controls of a C-46 transport, ferrying 55-gallon drums of gasoline "over the hump" from India to China. [92] One transport was being lost for every 218 flights (an accident rate of 1.968 planes lost per thousand hours). [5] In Österreich (2-fach Platin im Januar 1996)[6] und der Schweiz blieb das Album jeweils über 60 Wochen in den Charts. By Carol Nader. He got over the hump, the hardest thing for a beginner to do, and although he knows better than to take anything for granted, it looks like it’s all downhill from here. [98] Although three C-47s were lost during the operation, ICD had no losses. [134], Of 42,000 tons of materiel delivered before XX BC abandoned its China bases and returned to India, the ICD moved almost two-thirds. Pricer also charted all known crash sites to eliminate checking previous wrecks, and on occasion called upon a Sikorsky YR-4 helicopter based at Myitkyina to assist in rescue missions.[181]. [100] On 6 January a particularly fierce winter storm blew across the Himalayas from west to east, increasing the time of westbound trips by one hour, and caused 14 CNAC and ATC transports to be lost or written off, with 42 crewmen missing, the highest one-day loss of the operation. [164], Another Liberator transport variant, the C-109, carried gasoline in converted B-24Js or B-24Ls. [6][7] Hardin returned to the India China Wing in February 1944, just as the first of a trickle of four-engined Douglas C-54 Skymaster transports arrived in theater (see Operations on the low hump and in China below). Lt.Col. 16 new C-47s arrived in November bringing in the ground crews for Project 8 aircraft. Takeoffs there were subject to artillery and sniper fire. But today, ICD's unique outfit probably would have made the story a trifle less stark. Because of the slowness of reinforcements in reaching the CBI, the Trans-India Command was never formally manned or equipped with its own personnel and aircraft in its three months of existence. The route was a "blend" of sea and air transport totaling 9,800 mi (15,800 km) from. Final operations were flown in November 1945 to return personnel from China. After review by Gen. William D. Old and Air Marshal. [139] The load allocations that ICD had to commit to XX BC early on caused "mutual recriminations" between XX BC, ICD and Chennault, from whom most of the altered allocation tonnage was taken, with each blaming the other for problems that ensued. 9994 Sowder Village Square #816 Manassas, VA 20109 Phone: (703) 232-1758 PLM later became standard practice throughout the AAF. Table 211 - ATC Operations From Assam, India to China (Over the Hump): Jan 1943 to Aug 1945", "Background Information / Curtiss C-46 Commando", "Flying Safety Officers launch Intensified Drive", "Trojan Run Takes C-54 Over Hump Twice Gaily", "Blackie's Gang' Instills Confidence in Air Crews", Imphal, The Hump and Beyond (Combat Cargo groups), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Hump&oldid=1005157178, World War II operations and battles of the Southeast Asia Theatre, Aerial operations and battles of World War II involving the United Kingdom, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2014, Articles with dead external links from September 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "In conformity with recently announced War Department policy and to provide more efficient operations of the India-China transport line the First Ferry Group will be taken over on December 1st by AAF Air Transport Command. Why Ageing Doesn't Mean Decline and Fall Ageing is like climbing a mountain but, despite what we’re led to believe, getting to your peak is not the best part. [113][al], Both the accident rate and the raw number of accidents decreased notably as a result of these measures with the exception of the C-87/C-109 types, which remained 500% higher than on the C-54. The airlift was the final leg of a journey of 12,000 mi (19,000 km) from Los Angeles to China often taking four months. On 13 October 1943, a large number of fighters assisted by ground observers[79] evaded U.S. fighter patrols and shot down a C-46, a C-87, and a CNAC transport while damaging three others. The concept proved to be flawed from the outset when the planned 300-bomber force was reduced to a single combat wing of 150 bombers before it left the United States. August 1994 im Vertrieb von Kel-Life und im gleichen Jahr im Vertrieb durch edel records auf den Markt. As a result of these efforts, President Roosevelt directed that the Presidential Unit Citation be awarded to the India-China Wing. It delivered more than 44,000 tons of cargo and passengers to China that month at an aircraft availability rate of 75%, but also incurred 23 fatal crashes with 36 crewmen killed. Each station had a fresh maintenance crew trained for a specific service task, including engine run up, inspections, cleaning, technical repair, and servicing, a process that took nearly a full 24-hour day per aircraft to complete. One Hump pilot called the variant "an evil, bastard contraption" and a "ground-loving bitch" that "could not carry enough ice to chill a highball". "Be like a duck, paddling, and working hard in the water, but what everyone sees is a smiling, calm face." For now, we’ll be here two times a month. The final missions of the ICD, made after most of its attached organizations had departed, were the transporting of 47,000 U.S. personnel west over The Hump from China to Karachi for return to the United States. East of the Mekong the terrain became decidedly less rugged, and the elevations more moderate as one approached the Kunming airfield, itself 6,200 feet (1,900 m) above sea level.[12][29]. Before the Age of Studded Snow Tires, driving up an icy driveway with declivities on both sides was a nightmare. There was a hump towards the top where the driveway met the road, and if you were driving too slowly or cautiously the car wouldn’t get over that bulge and start sliding down instead. AAF Commanding General Henry H. Arnold observed first-hand the hazards of "flying the Hump" in February 1943 when the combat crew flying Argonaut, the B-17 that transported his party, became lost as they flew to Kunming following the Casablanca Conference. [ak] In addition to the Assam and India Wings, ICD added the Bengal Wing, headquartered at Tezgaon, to control C-54 operations, and the China Wing at Kunming. Cycling >> Clothing >> Women >> Jackets; Hump Womens Signal Waterproof Jacket; Hump Womens Signal Waterproof Jacket. [r] Requests for more antiaircraft guns, a weather squadron, and radios and landline communications equipment for an early warning system were immediately approved but went unfulfilled for a variety of reasons. [8] The Japanese invasion of French Indochina closed all sea and rail access routes for supplying China with materiel except through Turkestan in the Soviet Union. The ICW-ATC became the India China Division ATC (ICD-ATC), while the Eastern Sector, carrying out the India-China airlift, was re-designated the Assam Wing, and the Western Sector support organization became the India Wing. At least 80 were involved in major accidents between September 1944 and August 1945. In late November he added two B-25 Mitchells to his small fleet from aircraft that had been consigned to a salvage field. [25][106] The accident toll increased in the two months that followed, with 69 planes lost and 95 crewmen killed. [82][84], Hardin altered operations by introducing night missions and refusing to cancel scheduled flights because of adverse weather or threat of interception. Between 5 December 1944 and 5 January 1945, C-46s and crews were attached to the Tenth Air Force to augment "Operation Grubworm". [174], Still, American and CNAC pilots often flew daily on round-trip flights, and around the clock. [3] Olds and his staff had founded the Air Corps Ferrying Command in June 1941 and pioneered overseas military air transport, including use of the South Atlantic air route by which aircraft, personnel, and cargo would reach India from the United States. "Net tons" excludes the weight of fuel transported to China to enable the return of the aircraft to India. Hail, sleet, and torrential rains lashed the aircraft. Like the C-87, they were not popular with their crews,[az] since they were very difficult to land when fully loaded, particularly at airfields such as Kunming's above 6,000 feet (1,800 m) in elevation, and often demonstrated unstable flight characteristics when all eight cargo tanks were full. Briefings and fuelings were conducted at Myitkyina South, the planes flew to their pickup fields and loaded, and then flew back to Myitkyina South for a final refueling before flying on to China. [155] The 7,500 total was first exceeded in August 1943, by which time objectives had been increased to 10,000 tons a month. However, on 8 May 1942 the Japanese seized Myitkyina[d] and this, coupled with the loss of Rangoon, effectively cut Allied access to the Burma Road. Henry Watson is the story of a troubled youth who barely graduated high school who takes advantage of the country’s desperate need for pilots at the start of World War II to fulfill a life-long dream of becoming a flyer. In December 1942, one-third of the 102 technical sergeant (non-commissioned officer) pilot training graduates of the Lubbock Field Class 42-I were immediately sent to India to fly the Hump as replacement co-pilots. Yeates, founder member of the Veterans Memorial Museum in Laurel, MS, This page was last edited on 6 February 2021, at 07:16. [149][au], The 2nd MATS moved in entirety from its base at Dergaon to Luliang Field, China, completing the deployment by December 13. [105] By January 1945, Tunner's division had 249 aircraft and 17,000 personnel. Army Air Forces. Feb 15, 2017 - Explore Gerri Skaggs's board "Over the hump Wednesday" on Pinterest. THE MAGIC WILL CONTINUE- We have lived, breathed and loved the race day magic of Over the Hump at Irvine Lake, and we continue to be passionate about serving the Orange, Riverside, Los Angeles and San Diego racers that are family, with a central location. [162][163], Despite its shortcomings, the C-87 was valued for the reliability of its engines, speed that enabled it to reduce significantly the effect of head and cross winds, a service ceiling that allowed it to surmount most weather fronts, and range that permitted its crews to fly "pressure-front" patterns that chased favorable winds. As a result, the division flight surgeon reported that half of all crewmen suffered from operational fatigue. Haynes was promoted to brigadier general and placed in command. [46][47] The airlift lost its first aircraft to accident on 23 September 1942, presumably from icing,[48] after which losses of transports increased sharply. Part of a steadily dwindling number of “Hump” pilots who have been meeting since 1946, the group of friends said age and infirmity will make this reunion their last. Ultimately monthly requirements surpassed 50,000 tons. Col. Robert L. Scott, a pursuit pilot awaiting an assignment in China, was assigned as his operations officer and a month later as executive officer. Februar 2021 um 13:08, Vorlage:Webachiv/IABot/kellyfamilysite.de, „Over The Hump“ – Album-Info und CD-Kritik, Mehr als „Thriller“ geht nicht. Despite initial resistance, PLM was successfully implemented throughout the division. ATC operations accounted for 685,304 gross tons of cargo carried eastbound during hostilities, including 392,362 tons of gasoline and oil, with nearly 60% of that total delivered in 1945. [m] Lt. Col. Julian M. Joplin, acting at the direction of Naiden, for all practical purposes commanded India-China operations until 18 August. [147] Most of the remaining C-47s were eventually sent to bases in Burma and continued India-China missions over the lower routes. The ABC Ferry Command resupplied Stilwell's retreating army and evacuated its wounded, while establishing a regular air service to China using ten borrowed DC-3s, three AAF C-47s,[17][25] and 13 CNAC C-53s and C-39s. Pricer's 90 men of the 1352nd AAF Base Unit (Search and Rescue) at Mohanbari used four B-25s, a C-47, and an L-5, painted yellow overall with blue wing bands for easy identification, to conduct the search missions. Co-produced by Hartmut Müller and Kathy Kelly and recorded at the Sound Studio N in Cologne, it was released on 26 August 1994 throughout most of Europe. [78][af] By the end of 1943, Hardin had 142 aircraft in operation: 93 C-46, 24 C-87, and 25 C-47.[7]. On 22 June Col. Robert F. Tate (who like Haynes was a bombardment officer) was named to replace Haynes, but he was also in charge of the Trans-India Command in Karachi and remained in that capacity. [2][165], The Curtiss C-46 Commando began to fly India-China missions in May 1943. ICD flew 1,648 sorties, delivering 25,136 troops; 2,178 horses; and 1,565 tons of materiel; for a total of 5,523 tons. Of the eventual 776,532 gross tons and approximately 650,000 net tons transported over the Hump, CNAC pilots accounted for 75,000 tons (about 12%).